Sunday Feb 25, 2024

1998年考研英语阅读真题及解析【第五篇】(1998年考研英语一)

1998年考研英语阅读真题及解析【第五篇】(1998年考研英语一)缩略图

passage5注解:标题为红色,翻译为蓝色,分析为绿色。? ? ? ? scattered around the globe are more than 100 small regions of isolated volcanic activity known to geologists as hot spots. unlike most of the world on the contrary, many of them lie deep in the interior of a plate. most of the hot spots move only slowly, and in some cases the movement of the plates past them has left trails of dead volcanoes. the hot spots and their volcanic trails are milestones that mark the passage of the plates.
? ? ? ? that the plates are moving is now beyond dispute. africa and south america, for example, are moving away from each other as new material is injected into the sea floor between them. the complementary coastlines and certain geological features that seem to span the ocean are reminders of where the two continents were once joined. the relative motion of the plates carrying these continents has been constructed in detail, but the motion of one plate with respect to another cannot readily be translated into motion with respect to the earths interior. it is not possible to determine whether both continents are moving in opposite directions or whether one continent is stationary and the other is drifting away from it. hot spots, anchored in the deeper layers of the earth, provide themeasuring instruments needed to resolve the question. from an analysis of the hot-spot population it appears that the african plate is stationary and that it has not moved during the past 30 million years.
? ? ? ?the significance of hot spots is not confined to their role as a frame of reference. it now appears that they also have an important influence on the geophysical processes that propel the plates across the globe. when a continental plate come to rest over a hot spot, the material rising from deeper layers creates a broad dome. as the dome grows, it develops deep fissures(cracks); in at least a few cases the continent may break entirely along some of these fissures, so that the hot spot initiates the formation of a new ocean. thus just as earlier theories have explained the mobility of the continents, so hot spots may explain their mutability(inconstancy).
一、文章结构分析
? ? ? ? 这是一篇纯自然科学的文章。主要介绍了”热点”现象以及其对地质板块学研究的重要意义。由于文章目的是解释一种理论,因此,从语言上讲,描写成分比较多。
? ? ? ?第一段:对于中心概念”热点“进行了描述,实际相当于一个定义。
? ? ? ?第二段:从大陆板块移动谈起,后半段指出”热点”理论对于地质板块学研究的一个意义,即,作为参照。
? ? ? ?第三段:“热点”理论对于地质板块学研究的第二个意义,即,影响地球物理过程,如海洋的形成。

1.the author believes that.
[a]the motion of the plates corresponds to that of the earths interior
[b]the geological theory about drifting plates has been proved to be true
[c]the hot spots and the plates move slowly in opposite directions
[d]the movement of hot spots proves the?continents are moving apart.
1.作者相信的观点是。
[a]板块的运动与地球内部的运动相一致
[b]地质学上的板块漂移说被证明是正确的
[c]热点和板块向相反方向缓慢地移动
[d]热点的运动证明各大洲(即大陆板块)正在彼此分开

2.that africa and south america were oncejoined can be deduced from the fact that.
[a] the two continents are still moving in opposite directions
[b] they have been found to share certain geological features
[c] the african plate has been stable for 30 million years
[d]over 100 hot spots are scattered all around the globe
2.非洲和南美洲曾经彼此相连可以从这一事实推断出来。
[a]这两个大陆仍然在向相反的方向移动
[b]它们被发现具有某些共同的地质特征
[c]非洲板块至少3000万年未移动
[d]地球各地散布着一百多个热点

3.the hot spot theory may prove useful in explaining.
[a]the structure of the african plates
[b]the revival of dead volcanoes
[c]the mobility of the continents
[d]the formation of new oceans
3.在解释方
1998年考研英语阅读真题及解析【第五篇】(1998年考研英语一)插图
面热点理论可以被证明是有用的。
[a]非洲板块的结构
[b]死火山的复苏
[c]大陆板块的移动性
[d]新海洋的形成

4.the passage is mainly about.
[a]the features of volcanic activities
[b]the importance of the theory about drifting plates
[c] the significance of hot spots in geophysical studies
|[d] the process of the formation of volcanoes

4.本文主要是关于。
[a]火山活动的特点
[b]板块漂移理论的重要性
[c]热点学说在地质物理研究中的重要性
[d]火山的形成过程
二、核心词汇与超纲词汇
(1)isolated(a.)隔离的,孤立的;isolate(v.)孤立,隔离;isolation(n.)隔绝,孤立,隔离
(2)volcanic(a.)火山的;猛烈的,易突然发作的;volcano(n.)火山
(3)trail(n.)踪迹,痕迹,形迹(v.)跟踪,追踪,拉,拖
(4)milestone(n.)里程碑;人生或历史上重大事件或转折点
(5)stationary(a.)静止的,固定的;stationery(n.)文具
(6)confine(v.)(to,within)限制,局限于;管制
(7)propel(v.)推进,推动;激励,驱策
(8)fissure(n.)裂缝,裂隙(v.)
(9)initiate(v.)开始,发动,发起,提议;initiation(n.);initiator(n.)创始人,发起人,传授者,教导者
(10)mobility(n.)运动性,稳定性
(11)mutability(n.)可变性,易变性,不定性
三、阅读答案:b b d c
四、全文翻译:?
? ? ? ? 地球上散落分布着一百多个互不相连的小火山活动区,被地质学家称为热点。和世界上大多数火山不同的是,它们并不总是在构成地球表面的巨大漂流板块之间的边界上被发现;相反,许多热点深藏于板块内部。(长难句①)大多数热点只缓慢地移动,有时,经过这些热点的板块运动留下了死火山的痕迹。热点及其火山痕迹是标志板块迁移的里程碑。
? ? ? ?板块漂移这一理论现在是毋庸置疑的。(佳句①)以非洲和南美洲为例,由于有新的物质注入二者之间的海底,两大洲正在彼此分离。但互相吻合的海岸线和某些似乎跨越海洋的地质特征会使人想到这两个大陆曾经是连在一起的。(长难句②)携带这些大陆的板块的相对运动已经能够被详细地阐述出来,但一个板块相对另一板块的运动还不能轻易地解释为相对于地球内部的运动。(长难句③)人们不能确定两个大陆是在朝相反的方向运动,还是一个大陆停止不动而另一个从它身边漂移开去。(长难句④)位于地球更深层的热点提供了解决该问题所需要的测量仪器。从热点地区的人口情况分析来看,非洲板块似乎是静止不动的,在过去3000万年里都没有移动过。
? ? ? ? 热点的重要性不仅限于作为参照体系这一作用。现在看来,它们还对推动板块在地球表面漂移这一地球物理过程有重要影响。当大陆板块漂移到热点上方,来自地球深层的物质便形成了巨大的圆顶状隆起物。随着这个圆顶的增长,板块出现深深的裂缝。至少有几次,大陆可能会沿着其中的一些裂缝完全裂开了,因此这个热点就引发了一个新的海洋的形成。这样,正像早期的理论解释了大陆的移动性一样,热点理论或许能解释大陆板块的不稳定性。(佳句②)

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