Thursday Feb 29, 2024

1980考研英语真题(1980考研英语一真题详解pdf)

1980考研英语真题(1980考研英语一真题详解pdf)缩略图

section i? use of prepositions
在所给的介词中选择一个适当的填入空白:(本大题共5分,每题分)(注意:各题只能填写一个答案,多填答案不得分)
to, at, instead of, from, of, with, on, among, between, because of, about, for into, with regard to, over

    the findings are far ________ satisfactory.
    we shall divide the work ________ us research workers.
    the rainy season in that country varies ________ 3 – 4 months.
    they have never heard ________ such an invention.
    we must pay attention ________ the latest development of the situation.
    the newly-installed control computer will soon be put ________ use.
    the news which i am going to tell you ________ is rather serious.
    the engineer seemed to know what the sign stood ________.
    the machine tool went out of control ________ mishandling.
    don’t be satisfied ________ what you have achieved.

section ii verb tenses
用所给动词的适当时态语态填入空白:(本大题共10分,第7题2分,其余各题均1分)(注意:各题只能填写一个答案,多填答案不得分)

    those who’d like to visit the exhibition ________ (sign) your names here.(were defeated/had been defeated)
    a great number of small power stations ________ (set up) in their county since liberation.(were defeated/had been defeated)
    he asked me whether my brother ________ (fly) to beijing.(were defeated/had been defeated)
    he fell asleep immediately last night; he must ________ (be) very tired.(were defeated/had been defeated)
    “have you moved into the new flat?”

“not yet. the rooms ________ (paint).”(were defeated/had been defeated)

    the director recommended that she ________ (study) more english before going abroad.(were defeated/had been defeated)
    the teacher told them since light ________ (travel) faster than sound, lightning ________ (appear) to go before thunder.(were defeated/had been defeated)
    how long ________ they ________ (dig) the ditch?(were defeated/had been defeated)
    he refused to tell us whether he ________ (undertake) the job.(were defeated/had been defeated)

section iii verb forms
用所给动词的适当形式(不定式、分词、动名词)填入空白:(本大题共15分,每题分)(注意:各题只能填写一个答案,多填答案不得分)

    matter is the name ________ (give) to everything which has weight and occupies space.(were defeated/had been defeated)
    i shall never forget ________ (meet) the late premier zhou during his inspection of our factory.(were defeated/had been defeated)
    i wonder if he could get it ________ (do) before tomorrow.(were defeated/had been defeated)
    night ________ (fall), we hurried home.(were defeated/had been defeated)
    a beam of light will not bend round corners unless ________ (make) to do so with the help of a reflecting device.(were defeated/had been defeated)
    we were busy ________ (get) things ready for the trial production when he phoned us.(were defeated/had been defeated)
    some molecules are large enough ________ (see) under the electronic microscope.(were defeated/had been defeated)
    the floor does not look so bad when ________ (sweep) clean.(were defeated/had been defeated)
    ________ (fail) several times, they need some encouragement.(were defeated/had been defeated)
    ________ (catch) in the rain, he was wet to the skin.

?
section iv structure and vocabulary
选择填空:(本大题共15分,每题1分)在每题下面的[a], [b], [c], [d]四个答案中,将你认为最合适的答案画个“〇”。(注意:各题只能填写一个答案,多填答案不得分)
example:
he ________ me that he decided to leave on monday.
[a] spoke
[b] said
[c] talked
[d] told
answer: [d]

    this test ________ a number of multiple choice questions.

[a] composes of
[b] composes in
[c] consists of(c)
[d] consists in

    she writes as ________ as her sister.

[a] clear
[b] more clear
[c] clearly(c)
[d] most clearly

    i prefer this diagram ________ that one.

[a] than
[b] more than
[c] rather than(c)
[d] to

    i have been studying here for four years, by next summer i ________.

[a] shall graduate
[b] shall be graduated
[c] shall be graduating(c)
[d] shall have graduated

    hardly had he finished his speech ________ the audience started cheering.

[a] and
[b] when
[c] than(c)
[d] as

    i wish you ________ like that.

[a] don’t talk
[b] won’t talk
[c] wouldn’t talk(c)
[d] not to talk

    only when you have obtained sufficient data ________ come to a sound conclusion.

[a] can you
[b] would you
[c] you will(c)
[d] you can

    i found ________ to answer all the questions within the time given.

[a] no possibility
[b] there was impossibility
[c] impossible(c)
[d] it impossible

    you ________ go now. it’s getting late.

[a] had rather
[b] would rather
[c] had better(c)
[d] would better

    hot metal ________ as it grows cooler.

[a] contracts
[b] reduces
[c] condenses(c)
[d] compresses

    wood does not conduct electricity; ________.

[a] so doesn’t rubber
[b] also doesn’t rubber
[c] nor does rubber(c)
[d] nor rubber does

    comrade li ________ be in beijing because i saw him in town only a few minutes ago.

[a] mustn’t
[b] can’t
[c] may not(c)
[d] isn’t able to

    i know it isn’t important but i can’t help ________ about it.

[a] but to think
[b] thinking
[c] think(c)
[d] to think

    the more we looked at the picture, ________.

[a] the less we liked it
[b] we like it less
[c] better we liked it(c)
[d] it looked better

    to succeed in a scientific research project ________.

[a] one needs to be persistent
[b] persistence is needed
[c] one needs be a persistent person(c)
[d] persistence is what one needs(were defeated/had been defeated)(were defeated/had been defeated)
section v? error-detection
认辩错误:(本大题共5分,每题1分)下面句子中有 [a], [b], [c], [d]四处划线部分,在你认为是错误的一处画上“○”。(注意:各题只能填写一个答案,多填答案不得分)
example:
it is very kind you to supply me .
answer: [d]

    never before people our country been athletic sports.([c] approve of)
    of us in that chemical plant should have lungs x-rayed.([c] approve of)
    the traffic accident he in bed for two weeks, his wound .([c] approve of)
    we him smoking and a lot of .([c] approve of)
    the reason for the great of smoke is that there too factories in the city.([c] approve of)

section vi chinese-english translation
将下列句子译成英语:(本大题共20分,第1题2分,其余各题均3分)

    水一煮沸请立即把开关关掉。
    在八十年代,中国人民将以更大的步伐向前迈进。
    我们都同意李同志已作出的决定。
    这个结果比我们预期的要好得多。
    在过去的三年中,在恢复我国国民经济方面做了大量的工作。
    我们把英语作为学习西方先进科学技术的一种工具。
    没有党的领导,我国的社会主义现代化是不可能实现的。

section vii english-chinese translation
将下列短文译成汉语:(本大题30分)(文科各类专业译第1段,理、工、医、农、体各类专业译第2段)
(1)
the life of albert einstein is a model in many ways for both natural and political scientists.
first of all, he always employed the scientific method of seeking truth from facts. he firmly believed as he put it, that “there is nothing incomprehensible about the universe,” and through painstaking work, explained many of the phenomena thought to be “incomprehensible” in his day. einstein was also never afraid to admit mistakes when facts proved his theories wrong.
second, einstein’s contributions showed the great importance of theoretical work to scientific effort. although he himself rarely worked in laboratories, the concepts he developed led to many of the scientific advances which have shaped modern technology.
third, einstein believed very deeply that scientists must have a moral and social consciousness. in this way, he provided inspiration for a whole generation of scientists who became active in the communist movement.
einstein is often portrayed in bourgeois writings as a “genius” whose theories are so complicated that no one but a few best scientists can understand them. but he himself rejected the efforts to put him in a position far above other people. he was well known for his humble manner and often stressed to interviewers that his accomplishments would certainly have been achieved by others had he never lived.
actually, einstein’s theory of relativity and his other scientific works are not that hard to understand with a little study. but beyond learning einstein’s theories, his overall attitude towards science as a tool to liberate humanity is something from which everyone can and should learn.
(2)
between now and the end of the century, there will be many exciting developments and also many difficult problems to deal with. perhaps the most urgent problem is to provide enough food. the world’s population is expected to reach 7,000 million by the year 2000, but already scientists have produced new and better varieties of wheat and rice and animal. they have also been experimenting with techniques of cultivating plants by using mixtures of chemical compounds and water only, and then there will be no need for ordinary soil. another problem which the world will face is to get rid of refuse (废料). one solution is to burn refuse at very high temperatures in incinerators (焚化炉). a development of this, which may prove very useful in the future, is to use these incinerators to generate steam power. in fact, any new source of energy will be very welcome, as there is already a shortage of petroleum. to solve the energy problem, scientists will probably also try to make more use of solar energy.
the possible effects of some scientific fields, such as lasers and cryogenics (低温学), are difficult to imagine and both already have a number of uses. the supercooling effects of the cryogenics which convert liquid helium (液态氦) and other gases into “superfluids” and metals into “superconductors”, making them non-resistant to electricity, could change the world in a number of ways. the laser, with its beam of strong light, can drill a hole in a diamond, and yet can be so well controlled that it can be used in delicate eye operations. the question is whether it will be most used for peaceful purposes or as a deadly weapon.
but perhaps the most remarkable developments will occur in space flight. one of the difficulties in the past has been the high cost, but now the space shuttle is being developed, and can be used a large number of times instead of only once. already man has been to the moon. perhaps by the end of the century he will h
1980考研英语真题(1980考研英语一真题详解pdf)插图
ave had a close-up view of venus (金星) or mars (火星).
1980年考研英语真题答案
section i: use of prepositions (5 points)
1.? from2.? among3.? between4.? of5.? to6.? to, into7.? about8.? for9.? because of10. with
section ii: verb tenses (10 points)
11. sign12. have been set up13. had flown14. have been15. are being painted16. study17. travels, appears18. have … been digging19. would undertake
section iii: verb forms (15 points)
20. given21. meeting22. done23. falling24. made25. getting26. to be seen27. swept28. having failed29. caught (having been caught, being caught)
section iv: structure and vocabulary (15 points)
30. [c]31. [c]32. [d]33. [d]34. [b]35. [c]36. [a]37. [d]38. [c]39. [a]40. [c]41. [b]42. [b]43. [c]44. [a]
section v: error-detection (5 points)
45. [a]46. [d]47. [b]48. [a]49. [b]
section vi: chinese-english translation (20 points)

    please turn off the switch (switch off) as soon as the water boils.
    the chinese people will forge ahead (march on, march onward, march forward) with greater strides in 1980’s.
    we all agree to the decision comrade li has made (made).
    the result is much (far) better than we expected.
    during the past three years a lot (of work) has been done in the recovery (restoration) of our national economy (in recovering our national economy; in restoring our national economy).
    we use english as a tool in learning western advanced science and technology.
    it is impossible to accomplish (carry out, fulfill, materialize) the socialist modernization of our country (our socialist modernization) without the leadership of the party.

section vii: english-chinese translation (30 points)
(1)
阿伯特·爱因斯坦的一生在许多方面,无论是对自然科学家,还是政治科学家,都是一个范例。
首先,他总是运用从事实中寻求真理的地。正如他所说的,他坚信“关于宇宙没有东西是不可知的,”并经过艰苦的劳动,了许多在他那个时代被认为是“不可知”的种种现象。而且,当事实证明他的理论是错误的时候,爱因斯坦也从不害怕承认错误。
其次,爱因斯坦的贡献说明理论工作对科学成就的巨大的重要性。虽然他自己很少在实验室工作,他所发展的各种概念使科学取得了许多进展,从而形成了现代技术。
第三,爱因斯坦深信科学家必须具 德和社会意识。这样,他鼓舞了整个一代的科学家,使他们积极参加共产主义运动。
爱因斯坦在资产阶级的笔下被描绘为一个“天才”,他的理论是如此地难于理解,以致只有少数最杰出的科学家才能懂得。但是,他本人不同意别人把他高置于他人之上的那些做法。他的谦逊态度是众所周知的,他常常对来访者强调说,如果没有他的话,别人也肯定能够取得他那样的成就。
事实上,爱因斯坦的相对论以及他的其他科学论著稍加研究是不难懂得的。但是除了学习爱因斯坦的理论外,他对于利用科学作为一种工具来解放人类的总的态度是每个人能够学习的,而且也是应该学习的。
(2)
从现在到本世纪末,将有许多令人兴奋的发展,同样也有许多困难的问题,需要加以处理。也许最为迫切的问题是提供足够的粮食。到2000年世界人口预期将达到70亿,但是科学家们已经培育出各种小麦、稻谷和牲畜的优良品种。他们还在实验只用化合物和水的混合剂来培植作物的技术,到那里就可不需一般的土壤了。世界将面对着的另一问题是处理废物。有一个解决办法就是在焚化炉中用高温的废物烧掉。这种方法的一个新发展,可能在将来证明极为有用,即是以这些焚火炉来产生蒸汽动力。事实是,任何新的能源都将是非常受欢迎的,因为石油已感不足。要解决能源问题,科学家们也许会高潮更多地利用太阳能。
诸如激光学和低温学,某些科学领域的可能作用是难以想象的,它们两者已经有若干用途。低温学的过冷作用将液态氦及某些气体变成“超流体”,将某些金属变成“超导体”,使它们没有电阻,从而可以在好些方面改变世界面貌。激光,以它强烈的光束,可在金刚石上钻孔,也可以很好地加以控制来进行难做的眼科手术。问题是它将被大量用于和平的目的呢,还是用途致使的武器。
但最惊人的发展也许将出现在宇宙飞行方面。过去的困难之一在于代价太高。但现在航天飞机正在发展,这种航天飞机可以使用多次而不是仅仅一次而已。人类已经到过月球。也许到本世纪末人类对金星或火星等将有一个精细的观察。

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