Friday Feb 23, 2024

2019考研英二真题, 首发,全网最全(2019考研英二难度)

2019考研英二真题, 首发,全网最全(2019考研英二难度)缩略图

section i??use of english
directions:
read the following text. choose the best word(s)?for each numbered blank and mark a, b, c or d on the answer sheet. (10 points)
?weighing yourself regularly is a wonderful way to stay aware of any significant weight fluctuations. ??1 ?, when done too often, this habit can sometimes hurt more than it ??2 ?.
weighing myself every day caused me to shift my focus from being generally healthy and physically active, to focusing ??3 ??on the scale. that was counterproductive to my overall fitness goals. i had gained weight in the form of muscle mass, but thinking only of ??4 ??the number on the scale, i altered my training program. that conflicted with how i needed to train to ??5 ??my goals.
i also found weighing myself daily did not provide an accurate ??6 ??of the hard work and progress i was making in the gym. it takes about three weeks to a month to notice significant changes in weight ??7 ??altering your training program. the most ??8 ??changes will be observed in skill level, strength and inches lost.
for these ??9 ?, i stopped weighing myself every day and switched to a bimonthly weighing schedule ??10 ?. since weight loss is not my goal, it is less important for me to ??11 ??my weight each week. weighing every other week allows me to observe and ??12 ??any significant weight changes. that tells me whether i need to ??13 ??my training program.
i also use my bimonthly weigh-in ??14 ??to provide information about my nutrition as well. if my training intensity remains the same, but i’m constantly ??15 ??and dropping weight, this is a ??16 ??that i need to increase my daily caloric intake.
the ??17 ??to stop weighing myself every day has done wonders for my overall health, fitness and well-being. i am experiencing increased zeal for working out since i no longer carry the burden of a ??18 ??morning weigh-in. i’ve also experienced greater success in achieving my specific fitness goals, ??19 ??i’m training according to those goals, instead of numbers on a scale.
rather than ??20 ??over the scale, turn your focus to how you look, feel, how your clothes fit and your overall energy level.
?1.?a. therefore ?b. otherwise ?c. however ?d. besides
2.?a. cares ? b. warns ? c. reduces ?d. helps
3.?a. solely ? b. occasionally c. formally ?d. initially
4.?a. lowering ? b. explaining ?c. accepting ?d. recording
5.?a. set ? ?b. review ? c. reach ? d. modify
6.?a. depiction ? b. distribution ?c. prediction ?d. definition
7.?a. regardless of ?b. aside from ?c. along with ?d. due to
8.?a. rigid ? b. precise ? c. immediate ?d. orderly
9.?a. judgments ?b. reasons ?c. methods ?d. claims
10.?a. though ? b. again ? c. indeed ? d. instead
11.?a. track ? b. overlook ?c.conceal ? d. report
12.?a. approve?of ?b. hold onto ?c. account for ?d. depend on
13.?a. share ? b. adjust ? c. confirm ?d. prepare
14.?a. features ? b. rules ? c. tests ? d. results
15.?a. anxious ? b. hungry ?c. sick ? d. bored
16.?a. secret ? b. belief ? c. sign ? d. principle
17.?a. necessity ?b. decision ?c. wish ? d. request
18.?a. surprising ?b. restricting ?c. consuming ?d. disappointing
19.?a. because ? b. unless ? c. until ? d. if
20.?a. dominating ?b. puzzling ?c. triumphing ?d. obsessing
?section ii reading comprehension
part a
direction:?read the following four texts. answer the questions below each text by choosing a, b, c or d. mark your answer on answer sheet. (40 points)
text 1
unlike so-called basic emotions such as sadness, fear, and anger, guilt emerges a little later, in conjunction with a child rather, they learn over time that such statements appease parents and friends—and their own consciences. this is why researchers generally regard so-called moral guilt, in the right amount, to be a good thing.
in the popular imagination, of course, guilt still gets a bad rap. it is deeply uncomfortable — itt binary 一feelings that may be advantageous in one context may be harmful in another. jealousy and anger, for example, may have evolved to alert us to important inequalities. too much happiness can be destructive.
and guilt, by prompting us to think more deeply about our goodness, can encourage humans to make up for errors and fix relationships. guilt, in other words, can help hold a cooperative species together. it is a kind of social glue.
viewed in this light, guilt is an opportunity. work by tina malti, a psychology professor at the university of toronto, suggests that guilt may compensate for an emotional deficiency. in a number of studies, malti and others have shown that guilt and sympathy may represent different pathways to cooperation and sharing. some kids who are low in sympathy may make up for that shortfall by experiencing more guilt, which can rein in their nastier impulses. and vice versa: high sympathy can substitute for low guilt.
in a 2014 study, for example, malti looked at 244 children. using caregiver assessments and the children’s self-observations, she rated each childs deprivation.

?21. researchers think that guilt can be a good thing because it may help_____
a.?foster a child’s moral development
b.?regulate a child’s basic emotions
c.?improve a child’s intellectual ability
d.?intensify a child’s positive feelings
?22. according to paragraph 2, many people still consider guilt to be____
a.?inexcusable ???
b.?deceptive
c.?addictive?? ????
d.?burdensome
?23. vaish hold that the rethinking about guilt comes from an awareness that____.
a.?emotions are context-independent
b.?an emotion can play opposing roles
c.?emotions are socially constructive
d.?emotional stability can benefit health
?24. malti and others have shown that cooperation and sharing????.
a may help correct emotional deficiencies
b. can bring about emotional satisfaction
c.?can result from either sympathy or?guilt
d.?may be the outcome of impulsive acts
?25. the word (line4 para5)?is closest in meaning to?????.
a. wrongdoings
b. discussions
c. restrictions
d. teachings
?text 2
forests give?us shade, quiet and one of the harder challenges in the fight against climate change. even as we humans count on forests to soak up?a good share?of the carbon dioxide we produce, we are threatening their ability to do so. the climate change we are hastening could one day leave us with forests that?emit more carbon?than they absorb.
thankfully, there is a way out of this trap—but it involves striking a subtle balance. helping forests flourish as valuable long into the future may require reducing their capacity to sequester carbon now. california is leading the way, as it does on so many climate efforts, in figuring out the details.
the states capacity to pull carbon from the air. healthy trees are also better able to fend off bark beetles. the landscape is rendered less combustible. even in the event of a fire, fewer trees are consumed.
the need for such planning is increasingly urgent. already, since 2010, drought and beetles have killed more than?100 million trees?in california, most of them in 2016 alone, and wildfires have?scorched?hundreds of thousands of acres.
californias only a small share of the total acreage that could benefit, an estimated half a million acres in all, so it will be important to?prioritize?areas at greatest risk of fire or drought.
the strategy also aims to ensure that carbon in woody material removed from the forests is locked away in the form of?solid lumber, burned as biofuel in vehicles that would otherwise run on fossil fuels, or used in compost or animal feed. new research on transportation biofuels is under way, and the state plans to encourage lumber production close to forest lands. in future the state proposes to take an inventory of its forests carbon-storing capacity every five years.
state governments are well accustomed to managing forests, including those owned by?the u.s.?forest service, but traditionally theys?plan, which is expected to be finalized by the governor early next year, should serve as a model.
?26. “one of the harder challenges” implies ___
a. global climate change may get out of control
b. forests may become a potential threat
c. people may misunderstand global warming
d. extreme weather conditions may arise
?27. to maintain forests as valuable , we may need to _
a. preserve diversity of species
b. lower their present carbon-absorbing capacity
c. accelerate the growth of young trees
d. strike a balance among different plants
?28.?californias forest carbon plan endeavors to?___
a.?restore its forests quickly after wildfires.
b.?cultivate more drought resistant trees.
c.?find more effective ways to kill insects
d.?reduce the density of some of its forests
?29.?what is essential to californias plan according to para.5?
a. to obtain enough financial support
b. to carry it out before 2020
c.?to handle the areas in the serious danger first
d. to perfect the emission-permit auctions
?30.?the authors plan can be best described as ____
a.?supportive
b. ambiguous
c. tolerant
d. cautious
?text3
????american farmers have been complaining of labor shortages for several years. the complaints are unlikely to stop without an overhaul of immigration rules for farm workers.
????congress has obstructed efforts to create a more straightforward visa for agricultural workers that would let foreign workers stay longer in the u.s. and change jobs within the industry. if this doesn’t change, american communities, and consumers will be the losers.
????perhaps half of u.s. farm laborers are undocumented immigrants.?as fewer such workers enter the country, the characteristics of the agricultural workforce are changing. today’s farm laborers, while still predominantly born in mexico, are more likely to be settled rather than migrating and more likely to be married than single. they are also aging. at the start of this century, about one-third of crop workers were over the age of 35. now, more than half are. and crop picking is hard on older bodies. one?oft-debated cure for this labor shortage remains as implausible as it’s been all along: native u.s. workers won’t be returning to the farm.
????mechanization isn’t the answer either — not yet, at least. production of corn, cotton, rice, soybeans and wheat has been largely mechanized, but many high-value, labor-intensive crops, such as strawberries, need labor. even dairy farms, where robots do a small share of milking, have a long way to go before they?are automated.
????as a result, farms have grown increasingly reliant on temporary guest workers using the h-2a visa to fill the gaps in the agricultural workforce. starting around 2012, requests for the visas rose sharply; from 2011 to 2016 the number of visas issued more than doubled.
????the h-2a visa has no numerical cap, unlike the h-2b visa for nonagricultural work, which is limited to 66,000 annually. even so, employers frequently complain that they aren’t given all the workers they need. the process is cumbersome, expensive and unreliable. one survey found that bureaucratic delays led the average h-2a workers to arrive on the job an average of 22 days late. the shortage is compounded by federal immigration raids, which remove some workers and drive others underground.
????in a 2012 survey, 71 percent of tree-fruit growers and almost 80 percent of raisin and berry growers said they were short of labor. some western farmers have responded by moving operations to mexico. from 1998 to 2000, 14.5 percent of the fruit americans consumed was imported. little more than a decade later, the share of imports was 25.8 percent.
in effect, the u.s. can import food or it can import the workers who pick it.
?31. what problem should be addressed according to the first two paragraphs?? ? ?
a. discrimination against foreign workers in the u.s.
b. biased laws in favor of some american businesses.
c.?flaws in u.s. immigration rules for farm workers
d. decline of job opportunities in u.s.agriculture
?32. one trouble with u.s. agricultural workforce is??????
a. the rising number of illegal immigrants
b. the high mobility of crop workers
c. the lack of experienced laborers
d. the aging?of?immigrant farm workers
?33. what is the much-argued solution the labor?shortage in u.s. farming?? ? ?
a. to attract younger laborers to farm work.
b. to get native u.s. workers back farming
c. to use more robots to grow high-value crops
d. to strengthen financial support for farmers.
?34. agricultural employers complain about the h-2a visa for?its????.
a.?slow granting procedures
b.?limi
2019考研英二真题, 首发,全网最全(2019考研英二难度)插图
t on duration of stay
c.?tightened requirements
d. control of annual admissions
?35. which of the following could be the best title for this text?? ??
a.?u.s. agriculture in decline?
b.?import food or labor?
c. america saved by mexico?
d. manpower vs.?automation?
?
text 4
arnold schwarzenegger, dia mirza and adrian grenier have a message for you: it’s easy to beat plastic. they’re part of a bunch of celebrities staring in a new video for world environment day-encourage you, the consumer, to swap out your single-use plastic staples to combat the plastic crisis.
my biggest concern with leaving it up to the individual, however, is our limited sense of what needs to be achieved. on their own, taking our own bags to the grocery store or quitting plastic straws, for example, will accomplish little and require very little of us. they could even be detrimental, satisfying a need to have “done our bit” without ever progressing onto bigger, bolder, more effective actions — a kind of “moral licensing” that allays out concerns and stops us doing more and asking more of those in charge.
?while the conversion around our environment and our responsibility toward it remains centered on shopping bags and straws, we’re ignoring the balance of power that implies as “consumers” we must shop sustainably, rather than as “citizens” hold our government and industries to account to push for real systemic change. nowhere in world environment day 2018’s key messages is there anything about voting for environmentally progressive politician, for example. why not?
?it’s important to acknowledge that the environment isn’t everyone’s priority –or even most people’s. we shouldn’t expect it to be. in her latest book, why could people do bad environmental things, wellesley college professor elilzabeth r. de sombre argue that the best way to collectively change the behavior of large numbers of people is for the change to be structural.
this might mean implementing policy such as a plastic tax that adds a cost to environmentally problematic action, or banning single-use plastics altogether. india has just announced it will “eliminate all single-use plastic in the country by 2022.” there are also incentive-based ways of making better environmental choices easier, such as ensuring recycling is at least as easy as trash disposal.
de dombre isn’t saying people should stop caring about the environment. it’s just that individual actions are to slow, she says, for that to be only, or even primary, approach to changing widespread behavior.
none of this is about writing off the individual. it’s just about putting things into perspective. we don’t have time to wait. we need progressive policies that shape collective action (and rein in polluting business), alongside engaged citizens pushing for change. that’s not something we can buy.
?36. some celebrities star in a new video to _____
a. demand new laws on the use of plastics
b. urge consumers to cut the use of plastics
c. invite public opinion on the plastics crisis
d. disclose the causes of the plastics crisis
?37. the author is concerned that “moral licensing” may _____
a. mislead us into doing worthless things
b. prevent us from making further efforts
c. weaken our sense of accomplishment
d. suppress our desire for success
?38. by pointing out our identify as “citizens,” the author indicates that ____
a. our focus should be shifted to community welfare
b. our relationship with local industries is improving
c. we have been actively exercising our civil rights
d. we should press our governments to lead the combat
?39. de dombre argues that the best way for a collective change should be _____
a. a win-win arrangement
b. a self-driven mechanism
c. a cost-effective approach
d. a top down process
40. the author concludes that individual efforts _____
a. can be too aggressive
b. are far from sufficient
c. can be too inconsistent
d. are far from rational
?
part b
directions:
read the following text and choose the best answer from the right column to complete each of the unfinished statements in the left column. there are two extra choices in the right column. mark your answers on the answer sheet. (10 points)
how seriously should parent take kid’s opinions when searching for a home?
in choosing a new home, camille mcclain’s kids had a single demand: a backyard.
????that seemingly reasonable request turned the chicago family’s home hunt upside down, as there weren’t many three-bedroom apartments on the north side — where the family was looking — that came with yard space. still, mcclain and her husband chose to honor their 4- and 6-year-old’s request.
“we worked with a few apartment brokers, and it was strange that many of them didn’t even know if there was outdoor space, so they’d bring us to an apartment, we’d see that it didn’t have a yard, and we’d move on,” said mcclain, who runs merry music makers in lakeview, a business focused on music education for children.
mcclain’s little ones aren’t the only kids who have an opinion when it comes to housing, and in many cases youngsters’ views weigh heavily on parents’ real estate decisions, according to a 2018 harris poll survey of more than 2,000 u.s. adults.
renters paid attention to their kids’ preferences even more: 83 percent said their children’s opinions will be a factor when they buy a home.
the idea of involving children in a big decision is a great idea because it can help them feel a sense of control and ownership in what can be an overwhelming process, said ryan hooper, clinical psychologist in chicago.
“children may face serious difficulties in coping with significant moves, especially if it removes them from their current school or support system,” he said.
younger children should feel like they’re choosing their home — without actually getting a choice in the matter, said adam bailey, real estate attorney based in new york and author of the upcoming children’s book “home,” about the search for the perfect home from the viewpoint of a child.
asking them questions about what they like about the backyard of a potential home — or asking them where their toys would go in the house — will make them feel like they’re being included in the decision-making process, bailey said.
many of the aspects of homebuying aren’t a consideration for children, said tracey hampson, a real estate agent based in santa clarita, calif. and placing too much emphasis on their opinions can ruin a fantastic home purchase.
she has a client who has been house-hunting for a while, and he always asks his young children their opinion. but when this buyer finally decided to write an offer on a home with a pool, his children burst into tears because they didn’t want a pool.
“they ended up not submitting an offer,” hampson said. “so speaking with your children before you make a real estate decision is wise, but i wouldn’t base the purchasing decision solely on their opinions.”
the other issue is that many children — especially older ones — may base their real estate knowledge on hgtv shows, which tend to focus on superficial aspects of real estate, said aaron norris of the norris group in riverside, calif.
“they love chip and julie gaines just as much as the rest of us,” he said. “hgtv has seriously changed how people view real estate. it’s not shelter, it’s a lifestyle. with that mindset change comes some serious money consequences.”
kids tend to get stuck in the features and the immediate benefits to them personally, norris said. and while their opinions on those elements shouldn’t reign supreme, the home buying process could be a time to start talking to kids about money, budgeting, homeownership and other financial decisions.
?“their opinions can change tomorrow,” gurner said. “as as harsh as it may be to say, that decision should likely not be made contingent on a child’s opinions, but rather made for them with great consideration into what home can meet their needs best — and give them an opportunity to customize it a bit and make it their own.”
this advice is more relevant now than ever before, even as more parents want to embrace the ideas of their children, despite the current housing crunch.
today, wannabe homebuyers have to be more open when it comes to must-haves and what you can compromise on, hampson said.
and speaking of compromise: the mcclain kids, hungry for outdoor space, fell in love with a home in the north park neighborhood that had a large yard. but it wasn’t ideal by their parents’ standards.
the family ended up renting a house in north center that had a smaller yard, but it was still big enough for playtime.
“i had to do a bit of a sales job with the kids since they loved the yard in north park,” mcclain said. “but there’s a hammock they lounge on, a spot to jump rope, a place to play in the sprinkler, and an area to write with sidewalk chalk.”
?
?
a. notes that aspects like children’s friends and social activities should be considered up on homebuying.
41. ryan hopper
b. believes that home buying should be based on children′s need′s rather than their opinions.
42. adam bailey
c. assumes that many children’s views on real estate are influenced by the media.
43. tracey hampson
d. remarks that significant moves may pose challenges to children.
44. aaron norris
e. says that it is wise to leave kids in the dark about real estate decisions.
45. julie garner
f. advise that home purchase should not be based only on children’s opinions.
?
g. thinks that children should be given a sense of involvement in homebuying decisions.
?

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